CNC machining is a manufacturing process in which computer software is preprotermined with commands for the movement of tools and machinery in the factory.
This process can be used to control a wide range of complex machines. From grinding machines, lathes to other types of complex machines are CNC routed. With CNC machining, three-dimensional cutting tasks can be performed with a single programmed script.
CNC process is the opposite of manual processing. That's why CNC has replaced a lot of manual processes. Manual machining is something that the operator needs the support of other tools such as levers, saws,… As for CNC processing,just put the workpiece into the machine, set up commands and wait for the finished product.
For people who do not directly operate CNC machine systems, they may recognize that CNC systems can resemble a set of conventional computer components. CNC machining uses software programs and dashboards that are different from all other forms of computation.
This article introduces you how CNC machiningworks, how to program CNC machines and classify CNC machines.
Table of Contents
How does CNC processing work?
When a CNC system is operated, the programmed cutting commands are transferred to the corresponding machining machine. The machine will perform the assigned tasks, just like a robot.
When cnc precision mechanical machining is needed for a product, you need detailed drawings. At least the drawings must be designed using CAD/CAM software such as Solid works, NX,… The drawing will then be converted via G code (cnc machining machine's own language) using a computer-based processor.
Based on the G code, cnc machining machines will control the knifehead, tools to make cuts with the correct speed and position.
The machine operator is the one who ensures that the G-code commands are not at fault. After the program is entered, the operator gives it a test run to make sure there are no errors in the encryption process.
Basically, CNC cutting tools are inserted into a vertical or horizontal spindle. The workpiece will be kept fixed by the fitting jig or by an ether.
CNC machining machines can create finished products with complex surfaces, many diverse cuts that are difficult to make according to traditional machining.
Like the Industrial Robot Arm, CNC machines also have 3 basic axes X, Y, Z. You've probably heard of axis 4, 5, or even 6. That's absolutely true. With increasing processing requirements, for the processing of complex details, there will be additional sub-axis.
Minimizing the role of humans in CNC machining machines
In traditional methods, the processing of a metal block to create the finished product is carried out by a skilled professional. The harder the products are, the more skilled and experienced the craftsman needs.
At VCC Molds,we used to have a lot of workers like that. Only, now these traditional workers have become managers of the team operating the automatic machine. The role of CNC machining machine operators has been minimized. The operator is tasked with setting up the code or converting the G code file to the tool machine.
With simple details, without the help of computer transcoding, a proficient programmer can manually program directly through the keyboard of the CNC machine panel.
The computer directs the machine tool to perform various machining activities according to the instructional program provided by the operator. This process is fast, safe and accurate.
CNC Machine Programming
In CNC manufacturing, machines are operated through numerical control, in which a software program is designated to control the machine.
Basically, CNC machining can pre-program the speed and location of machine tool functions and run them through software in repetitive, predictable cycles.
CNC machining is especially important in the fields of metal and plastic manufacturing.Learn more about the types of machining systems used and how CNC machine programming fully automates the CNC manufacturing process below:
Closed/Open Loop Processing System
During CNC production, position control is determined through an open or closed ring system.In the past, the signal ran in a single direction between the CNC controller and the motor.With a closed-loop system, the controller is capable of receiving feedback, making it possible to fix errors.Therefore, a closed loop system can correct the abnormalities in velocity and position.
In CNC machining,movement is usually directed through the X and Y axes.In turn, the tool is positioned and guided through the step motor or servo motor, which reproduces the movements exactly as determined by the G code.If the force and speed are the smallest, the process can be run through the open loop control.For everything else, closed-loop control is needed to ensure the speed, consistency, and accuracy required for industrial applications, such as metalworking.
Fully automated CNC machining
In today's CNC protocols, the production of parts through pre-programmed software is mostly automated.The size of a given part is positioned using computer-aided design software (CAD) and then converted into a realistic finished product using computer-aided manufacturing software (CAM).
A machined detail may require various tools such as cutting, drilling,… To meet that demand, the machine is now incorporating many functions into the machine.
In addition, CNC machining machines can now be combined with robotic arms transporting workpieces from one stage to another. Every stage is controlled by the same program. Regardless of the setup, the CNC process allows for the creation of consistency in the production of products that cannot be done manually.
Different types of CNC machines
The history of CNC router: NC or simply"Numbering Control" was developed in the late 1940s and early 1950s by John t. Parsons in partnership with M.I.T. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). As the technology advanced, the mechanisms were improved with analog computers and eventually digital computers, leading to the development of CNC machining.
The majority of CNC machining machines today are fully automated. Some common CNC machining processes include ultrasonic welding, perforation and laser cutting. The most frequently used machines in CNC systems include:
CNC Milling Machine
CNC milling machines perform CNC milling operations to create finished products. CNC milling is said to be the most common way of producing metal parts.
The milling machine is enhanced by an automatic knife changer, movable jigs, cooling system and case. Controlled by the G language with 3 axes X, Y, Z.
Sorting CNC milling machines include vertical milling machines (VMC) or horizontal milling machines (HMC).
In the lathe, the metal workpieces are cut in a round direction with tools. With CNC technology, the cuts used by lathes are made with precision and speed. CNC lathes are used to create complex designs that are not possible on manual machine versions.
In general, the control functions of milling machines and CNC lathes are similar. As with CNC lathes, lathes can be oriented using a G code or unique proprietary code. However, most CNC lathes consist of two axes – X and Z.
Plasma Cutting Machine
In the plasma cutter, there is a plasma nozzle that cuts the material. This process is first and foremost applied to metal materials but can also be used on other surfaces. To create the speed and heat needed to cut metal, plasma is created through a combination of compressed air and an electric arc.
EDM Wire Cutting Machine
The EDM wire cutter is anelectrical discharge machine. Collectively known as submersible processing and spark machining – is a process of molding embryos into specific shapes using electric sparks.
As the space between the electrodes becomes smaller, the electric field becomes stronger and therefore stronger than the dielectric. This allows the current to pass between the two electrodes. Therefore, parts of the workpiece are removed by each electrode.
Sub-categories of EDM include:
- Wire EDM: EDM wires use spark erosion to remove parts from the conductive material.
- Sinker EDM: Sinker EDM uses electrodes and workpieces soaked in dielectric fluid for the purpose of forming pieces.
In a process known as discharge, debris from each separated workpiece is cleaned away by a liquid dielectric. This dielectric appears when the current between the two electrodes stops and is meant to remove any subsequent charge.
Water Jet Cutting Machine
In CNC machining,water jets are used to cut hard materials. Such as granite and metal, with high pressure applications of water. In some cases, water is mixed with sand or some other strong abrasive substances. Companies often shape the machine parts of the factory through this process.
Water jets are used as an alternative to cutting materials that do not withstand the heat cutting process for other CNC machines. Due to the cooler properties, some sectors such as aerospace and the mining industry depend on water jets, where they use them for carving and cutting, among other functions. Companies also use water jet cutters for applications that require material cutting that are complex, as the lack of heat prevents any change in the intrinsic properties of the material that may be due to metal when cutting metal.
What else can CNC machines do?
As many CNC machine demonstration videos have shown, companies use CNC machines to make high-detail cuts from metal pieces for industrial hardware products.In addition to the aforementioned machines, you can find several other types of conventional machines used in CNC manufacturing to create CNC products with high detail and accuracy.Some of the most popular products produced by CNC machines include steel aerospace parts, metal automotive parts, wooden ornaments and plastic consumer goods.
Since these CNC products have distinct requirements, CNC machines regularly use other tools and components.
Several main types of machines are used in CNC systems:
- Wire Bending Machine
- Laser Cutting Machine
- Cylindrical Grinding Machine
- 3D Printer
- Glass Cutting Machine
Since CNC machines can make a lot of other tools and components, you can trust it to produce a variety of metal parts quickly and accurately. For example, when complex cuts need to be made at various levels and angles on the workpiece, it can all take place within minutes on a CNC machine.
As long as the machine is programmed correctly, the functions of the machine will take steps as prescribed by the software.Providing everything that is coded by design, a detailed product and technological value will appear after the process is over.
CNC Precision Mechanical Machining Service VCC
When you need precision mechanical processing, VCC is ready to provide services. As a company specializing in jig, and precision molding, VCC Molds is dedicated to providing CNC machining services and other modern machines.
To request accurate mechanical processing services, please contact VCC:
Vietnam Capacity Precision Mold Joint Stock Company
Head office and factory in Ha Noii: Lot B2-3-3b Nam Thang Long Industrial Park – P. Thuy Phuong – Q. Bac Tu Liem – HO CHI MINH CITY Hanoi.
Tel: (+84)24.37805300 – Fax: (+84)24.37805301
Hai Phong Vice President:No. 25 Dien Bien Phu Street, Machine Silk Ward, Ngo Quyen District, Hai Phong City.
Tel: (+84)0225.883.2161 – Fax: (+84)0225.883.2162
Ho Chi Minh City General Director: P7-03. OT.08 PARK Building 7, Vinhomes Central Park Urban Area, No. 208 Nguyen Huu Canh Street, Ward 22, Binh Thanh District, Ho Chi Minh City.
Vietnam Capacity Precision Mold Joint Stock Company
Address: Lot B2-3-3b, Nam Thang Long Industrial Park, Thu Phuong, Bac Tu Liem, Bac Tu Liem, Hanoi
Phone: (+84)24 6687 8283
Google map: https://goo.gl/maps/u6TrPvLWSb3bXAwQ6